lawyers for children : A child is exposed to severe beatings

Due to economical reasons, especially in poor countries, children are forced to work in order to survive.Child labour often happens in difficult conditions, which are dangerous and impair the education of the future citizens and increase vulnerability to adults.

It is hard to know exactly the age and number of children who work. At least 150 million children under 5 years of age worked in 2004, but the figure is underestimated because domestic labour is not counted.

Children are exposed to brutal assault during their work, and there must be care and protection of children and the children’s lawyer to defend them.

Child Protection‎ : How to Protect Your Child from Identity Theft ?

Child Protection‎ : How to Protect Your Child from Identity Theft ?

In 2005, five percent of the complaints the US Federal Trade Commission received regarding identity theft were from individuals younger than 18. In some cases, children in the 0-5 age group have been heavily targeted because the theft is less likely to be noticed for some time.

Vulnerable to identity theft due to age, spotless records and low detection rates, 140,000 children are victims of child identity theft in the United States every year.

It’s another side of raising children to bear in mind so that your child isn’t a victim of identity theft before they’ve even left home. If your child starts out with a bad credit report, it can make matters very difficult when trying to get a job, take out a car or student loan or obtaining a mortgage. Worse still, they can be harassed lifelong about debts they’ve never even accumulated! However, parents are not powerless and can take the steps outlined in this article to safeguard their child’s identity.

1 Keep your child’s important papers, including birth certificate, passport (if they have one) and social security card locked up in a safe place. Anything that has personal identifiers and could be used as identification needs to be kept safe. If you need to take these documents anywhere for proof of your child’s identity, always know where they are and remember to bring them back home with you after showing them.

Never carry your child’s social security card in your wallet. Keep it in a secure place, preferably in a safe at home.

2 When a business asks for a social security number for your child, always ask them why they need it. In the United States, you will be asked for your child’s social security number even more often than for the birth certificate. Many businesses, especially hospitals and doctors’ offices, still use social security numbers as identifiers.

Keep a record of who has the social security number of your child. Should anything untoward happen, this might help investigations into tracking down the culprit. A simple list kept with the birth certificate and social security number file will suffice; just remember to jot it down each time the number has been shared with a relevant authority.

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The CRM Customer Relationship Management Frameworks, Models, IDIC Model

The CRM Customer Relationship Management Frameworks/Models

A various range of comprehensive Customer Relationship Management CRM models have been developed. The author introduces five of them in this chapter.

2.2.1 THE IDIC Model

The IDIC is described as below (Figure 2.6)
Figure 2.6: The IDIC Methodology ( Peppers and Rogers, 2004)

The IDIC Model has been developed by Peppers and Rogers (2004) According to IDIC model, companies should take four actions in order to build closer one-to-one relationships with customers:

  • Identifying who the companies’ customers are and building a deep understanding of them.
  • Differentiating their customers in order to identify which amongst them have most value now and which offer most for the future. Besides, the differentiation can allow the companies to devise and implement customer specific strategies designed to satisfy individually different customer need. The clients represent different levels of value to the company and they their needs are radically not the same from the enterprise. According to Peppers and Rogers (2004), the customer differentiation task will involve an enterprise in categorizing its customers by both their value to the firm and by what needs they have.
  • Interacting with them in order to ensure that companies understand customer expectations and their relationships with other suppliers or brands. Thus, companies must improve the effectiveness of their interactions with clients. Each successive interaction with a customer should take place in the context of all previous interactions with that customer. A conversation with a customer should pick up where the last one left off. Effective customer interactions provide better insight into customer’s needs.
  • Customizing the offer and communications to ensure that the expectations of customers are met. Indeed, the company should adapt some aspect of its behaviour toward a customer, based on that individual’s needs and value. To involve a customer in a relationship, a company needs to adapt its behaviour to satisfy the customer’s expressed needs. This might entail “mass-customization a product or tailoring some aspect of its service” (Peppers, Rogers and Dorf, 1999).

2.2.2 The Quality Competitiveness Index Model (QCI)

QCI are independent specialists who assist blue chip companies in managing customers. They are both strategic Continue reading “The CRM Customer Relationship Management Frameworks, Models, IDIC Model”

Customer Relationship Management in Retail Industry : Capitalization on CRM

3:  Findings

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is used for the achievement of back-office automation of commercial strategy and is used in conjunction to the principles of CRM. In the past, CRM normally was referred to as the software used to help enterprises with customer relations. More recently, the focus has moved from the customer contact management aspect to more the sales force automation software (SFA), as well as the integration of knowledge management solutions.

With time, CRM has been used to define strategy in an organization. According to Laudon & Laudon (2007:102) the adoption of information systems (IS) allows for a tighter linkage between suppliers and customers, and assists in the achievement of competitive advantage.

In order for CRM to be successful, it is essential that all components of an organization process be covered. This begins with the commercial strategy adopted by the organization, and moves into the improvement of the enterprise and its work design by adopting technical means. According to Hintze (2006), “the key of CRM is to create a truly customer-centric philosophy, and help every member in organisation to follow up this philosophy”. Continue reading “Customer Relationship Management in Retail Industry : Capitalization on CRM”

Choice Models and Customer Relationship Management

Customer relationship management (CRM) typically involves tracking individual customer behavior over time, and using this knowledge to configure solutions precisely tailored to the customers’ and vendors’ needs. In the context of choice, this implies designing longitudinal models of choice over the breadth of the firm’s products and using them prescriptively to increase the revenues from customers over their lifecycle. Several factors have recently contributed to the rise in the use of CRM in the marketplace:

• A shift in focus in many organizations, towards increasing the share of requirements among their current customers rather than fighting for new customers.
• An explosion in data acquired about customers, through the integration of internal databases and acquisition of external syndicated data.
• Computing power is increasing exponentially.
• Software and tools are being developed to exploit these data and computers, bringing the analytical tools to th edecision maker, rather than restricting their access to analysts.

In spite of this growth in marketing practice, CRM research in academia remains nascent. This paper provides a framework for CRM research and describes recent advances as well as key research opportunities. See∼mela for a more complete version of this paper.
Keywords: customer relationship management, direct marketing

What is CRM?
Analytical customer relationship management (CRM) is the process of collecting and analyzing a firm’s information regarding customer interactions in order to enhance the customers’ values to the firm. Firms exploit such information by designing strategies uniquely targeted to consumer needs. This process enhances loyalty and increases switching costs, as information on consumer preferences affords an enduring competitive advantage. $By integrating various data (e.g. across purchases, operations, service logs, etc.), choice re-searchers can obtain a more complete view of customer behavior. These developments cut across industries, including banking, telephony, Internet, and other areas that have received limited attention in the marketing literature. In addition, each industry likely has unique challenges of its own.

We differentiate between analytical CRM, which is the focus of this paper, and behavioral CRM. Analytical CRM involves using firms’ data on its customers to design longitudinal models of choice over the breadth of the firm’s products and using them prescriptively to increase the revenues from customers over their lifecycle. In contrast, behavioral CRM uses experiments and surveys to focus upon the psychological underpinnings of the service interaction, or the managerial structures that make CRM effective.

A focus on CRM is warranted given the explosive growth of the analytical CRM applications in industry (Market forecasts analytical CRM revenue to increase from $2.4 billion in 2003, to $43 billion in 2007). Technological enhancement in information technology and increased addressability of customers via new channels has fueled this growth. Thus, it is surprising there are only few papers that seek to assess the state of research in this area, or outline the challenges unique to this area. This paper seeks to address this void.
What Novel Implications of CRM Exist for Choice Modeling?
Choice decisions in the context of CRM include firm choices (whom to target, when and with what) and customer choices (whether, what, when and where to buy). Several aspects make CRM a novel and potentially fruitful domain of inquiry for choice researchers:

* CRM applications typically involve massive amounts of data. These include many observations and many variables.
• CRM applications often involve an inward looking view of the customer, as competitive information is often impossible to obtain.
• Analytical CRM is typically dynamic, as trade-offs in current programs are made against future revenues. In conjunction with large data, this implies that new optimization techniques are needed to cope with such problems.
• Low response rates are often the norm, calling for more flexible response models than the popular logistic regression model.
• Unlike many scanner-panel applications, customers are addressable (Blattberg and Deighton, 1991). As a result, it is common to run large field experiments in these settings and control the sampling approach, affording a greater degree of control over the choice task. Addressability also implies it is easier to target consumers.
A Framework for CRM Research
CRM research can be organized along the customer lifecycle, including customer acquisition, development and retention strategies. Customer acquisition extends from the channels customers use to first access the firm (Ansari et al., 2004) to the promotions that bring them to a firm. The value of a customer can also be enhanced by the firm through appropriate development strategies such as delivering customized products (Ansari and Mela, 2003) and cross-selling (Kamakura et al., 1991, 2003). Finally, early detection and prevention of customer attrition can also enhance the total lifetime of the customer base, if efforts are focused on the retention of valuable customers.

The customer lifecycle implies that each customer has a value over his or her tenure with a firm. Estimating the lifetime value of a customer by itself requires sophisticated modeling, as it involves predictions of both revenues and retention probabilities. Several approaches exist to measure customer lifetime value (CLV). The relative merits of these different approaches is considered in Jain and Singh (2002) and Venkatesan and Kumar (2003). However, scant evidence exists regarding the accuracy of CLV predictions. There may be considerable room for improvement based on criteria such as out of sample validation, especially at the individual level.

The Pareto/NBD model of lifetime value may offer promise in the forecasting of lifetime value (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003), and recent advances by Fader et al. (2004) mitigate the computational burden of this model. Incorporation of covariates using a proportional hazards model and the addition of discounting to the Pareto/NBD could enrich this literature. Other fruitful areas for inquiry include the role of network effects in lifetime value, the effect of time aggregation and aggregation across a household, the role of predictors other than past purchases on lifetime value (such as inbound contacts or marketing), and a better accounting of costs.

An idea closely related to customer lifetime value is consumer lifetime value (Du and Kamakura, 2005). The distinction pertains to the perspective of the decision maker (firm vs. consumer), scope of information, and the approaches used to compute the value of a customer. Customer lifetime value is typically an inward-looking view of the consumer predicated on firms’ internal records for the purpose of determining the value of the customer to the firm. In contrast, consumer lifetime value encompasses all behaviors of a consumer across multiple or competing firms and assumes the perspective of a consumer making inter-temporal choices over categories and time so as to maximize his or her utility.

Consumer lifetime value models, which often combine internal and syndicated data, are generally applicable in industries where customer tenures are long, needs change over time and can be linked to life stages, and consumers trade-off future for current utility (such as savings and consumption). Ideally, consumer lifetime value models can be linked with internal firm records to obtain a better sense of which consumers to target. Consumers with a low share of wallet but a high consumer lifetime value may be especially attractive to a firm.

Our discussion of the state of CRM research proceeds using the customer lifecycle framework (acquisition, development and retention), and we shall describe the issues and methodological challenges unique to each stage.
The objective of acquisition strategies is to obtain more and profitable customers. For example, new home buyers are targeted for home insurance. In spite of its importance, identifying potential customers for acquisition is an area of scant attention. In general, acquisitions are profitable if the expected value of attaining the customer (over the lifetime) exceeds the cost (Blattberg et al., 2001). However, forecasts of likely response are predicated upon past response, and subject to regression to the mean if based on selection from such past response. Deeper analysis of appropriate probabilistic thresholds for mailing could yield significant advances in this area.

Customer acquisition occurs across an array of channels (e.g., direct television, direct mail, Internet, telemarketing, etc.) and researchers have begun to assess the efficacy of channel acquisition strategies and their effect on subsequent behaviors (Bolton et al., 2004; Verhoef and Donkers, 2005; Thomas, 2001). For example, Bolton et al. (2004) argue that customers acquired through channels with a price emphasis tend to be less loyal. A related issue pertains to referral programs, and there has been little analytical research on the efficacy and design of these programs.

Classic behavioral models of consumer adoption (need recognition followed by information search, purchase, and post-purchase service encounters) are useful in comprehending the effects of multi-channel acquisition strategies, as some channels are likely better for information search, while others are better for service or purchase. Thus, acquisition in a multi-channel environment should consider the interaction between these channels (Blattberg et al., 2004).


Continue reading “Choice Models and Customer Relationship Management”

CRM : What Is CRM Software? Social CRM and mobile CRM

What Is CRM Software?

The primary purpose of CRM software, sometimes known as contact management software, is to consolidate customer information into one repository, so users can better organize and manage relationships.

Additionally, these applications automate common processes and provide tools for monitoring performance and productivity. Systems vary, but the best CRM software will include at least the following four core functions:

Customer data management. Most products provide a searchable database to store customer information (such as contact information) and relevant documents (such as sales proposals and contracts).

Interaction tracking. These systems document conversations held by phone, in person, through email or other channels. These interactions can be logged manually, or automated with phone and email system integrations. Depending on the product, some systems can also track interactions on Facebook, Twitter and other social platforms.

Workflow automation. This standardizes business processes, usually through a combination of task lists, calendars, alerts and templates. Once a task is checked off as complete, for example, the system might automatically set a task for the next step in the process.

Reporting. Management can use these CRM tools to track performance and productivity based on activities logged in the CRM system—for instance, how many new contacts were added to the database that day, or how much revenue was generated. These tools can also be used for forecasting, such as for the next-quarter sales pipeline.
Market Trends to Understand
As you compare CRM software, it’s important you keep the following industry trends in mind.

Social CRM. The biggest trend is the convergence of customer relationship management and social networking technologies, loosely referred to as “Social CRM.” In fact, five top industry analysts have predicted this trend as having the biggest impact on how customer tracking software programs evolves.

Today, this intersection of social and client management software can be as simple as adding Facebook data to customer profiles. Or it can be more complex, with niche social media analytics products that tap into social APIs and generate leads, mine for customer sentiment or traffic and prioritize social customer service requests.

Mobile CRM. Mobile applications for customer relationship management are becoming increasingly sophisticated and popular. These tools don’t just port functions to a mobile interface—top CRM software vendors will offer apps that leverage the unique capabilities of mobile devices, such as GPS and voice (click here for a more detailed description of common iPad CRM features).

An outside sales rep could, for example, pull up a map of their current location and see pinpoints for accounts in that area. Or, a customer service rep might have the ability to speak a query into their mobile app, rather than try and type everything out on a tiny smartphone keyboard.
Pricing: Web-Based vs. On-Premise
In 1999, entered the market as the first major player in the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) CRM space. Today, a majority of CRM products—particularly those built for small businesses—are now SaaS solutions, though on-premise options still exist. The deployment method you choose should be a key consideration when conducting your CRM software comparison. Pricing between these two models usually (but not always) differs in the following ways:

Cloud-based software, also called Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), is typically priced on a subscription basis determined by the number of “seats” (sales reps, support agents, field technicians etc. who need to access the software). This type of software is housed off-site on servers managed by the software company. Because the software is delivered in a Web-browser, it can be a great option for Mac-based offices. For additional details on Mac CRM options, visit this guide.
On-premise customer management systems usually require purchasing a perpetual license upfront, with no recurring subscription cost. But users might also pay additionally for upgrades, customizations or maintenance. This software is housed on the buyers’ servers.

Continue reading “CRM : What Is CRM Software? Social CRM and mobile CRM”